Monday, June 20, 2016

Presentación sobre Cambio Climático, Acuerdo de París y Desarrollo Sostenible

Presentación sobre Cambio Climático, Acuerdo de París y Desarrollo Sostenible

VIII Foro “Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente”, Organización IDEAS PERU

Cusco, Perú

18 de Junio, 2016

Luis Alberto Fierro
Asesor en Financiamiento Climático
Latin American Finance & Consulting, LLC

1.Contexto y Antecedentes
2.El Cambio Climático
3.El Acuerdo de París
4.Los compromisos nacionales de mitigación y adaptación
5.Estrategias de Desarrollo Bajas en Emisiones y Resilientes al Clima


Nota:  Agradezco los insumos y las enseñanzas de mis ex-colegas de la Unidad de Apoyo de AILAC:  Isabel Cavelier, Alexa Kleysteuber, Giannina Santiago e Irene Suárez.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2keH2NAJ6iOblppb3YwYU5jbDg/view?usp=sharing


Friday, June 10, 2016

Fuentes de Financiamiento Climático en América Latina

Presentación sobre Fuentes de Financiamiento Climático en América Latina.
Presentada en Fundación Moises Bertoni, Asunción, Paraguay, 2 de junio, 2016.
1.Contexto y Antecedentes
2.Financiamiento Climático en el Acuerdo de Paris: retos y logros
3.Principales Fuentes de Financiamiento
  • Entidades del Mecanismo Financiero de la Convención
  • Bancos Multilaterales y Regionales de Desarrollo
  • Agencias y Bancos Bilaterales de Desarrollo
  • Otros Fondos Climáticos Internacionales
  • Fuentes Privadas
  • Fuentes Alternativas
  1. Como acceder a estos Recursos

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Financiamiento Climático: Identificando nuevas oportunidades para el Paraguay

6to Seminario: ¨Financiamiento Climático: Identificando nuevas oportunidades para el Paraguay"
  • El seminario se realizará el día jueves 2 de Junio a partir de las 8:00 horas en el Carmelitas Center, Salón Hope.
  • El encuentro es organizado por la Fundación Moisés Bertoni en conjunto con la Oficina Nacional de Cambio Climático de la Secretaría del Ambiente (SEAM), y la Secretaría Técnica de Planificación del Desarrollo Económico y Social (STP) y cuenta con el apoyo de la Embajada Americana.
  • Luis Fierro, especialista en financiamiento climático, disertará sobre ¨Fuentes de financiamiento climático en América Latina.¨
  • Alberto Paniagua, director ejecutivo de la Profonanpe en Perú, disertará sobre: ¨La experiencia de Profonanpe con el Fondo Verde del Clima.¨

Monday, May 23, 2016

Dudas sobre las cuentas nacionales en 2015

Preocupante este artículo de José Hidalgo Pallares y Diego Guerra sobre dudas en los resultados de las Cuentas Nacionales en el Ecuador.

La cifra de exiguo crecimiento del PIB en el 2015 (0.3 %) podría ser el resultado de sobre-dimensionar la inversión privada (Formación Bruta de Capital Fijo), así como al sector de la construcción.

Publicado en la edición mayo-junio 2016 de la Revista Gestión (@revista_gestion).

http://www.revistagestion.ec/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Dudas-sobre-las-cuentas-nacionales-2015.pdf

Lista de principales blogs sobre economía de Ecuador

El amigo José Luis Massón-Guerra, Ph.D. (c), profesor e investigador en la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (@joseluismasson) ha compilado una lista de los principales blogs sobre economía ecuatoriana:

https://m.facebook.com/notes/jos%C3%A9-luis-mass%C3%B3n-guerra/blogs-de-econom%C3%ADa-del-ecuador-la-lista-de-jos%C3%A9-luis-mass%C3%B3n-guerra-i/10153675726865773/

En un arrebato de generosidad, ha tenido la amabilidad de incluir este blog.  La verdad, como les consta, este blog trata sobre una variedad de temas, incluyendo economía, finanzas, inversiones, política, políticas públicas, cambio climático, y hasta ocasionalmente literatura, pero en todo caso agradezco la amabilidad, y lo tomaré como un reto para escribir con más frecuencia sobre economía ecuatoriana.

Por cierto, falta incluir en la lista el blog de José Luis:

http://www.joseluismassonguerra.com/economiadelasideas/


Sunday, May 1, 2016

Those crazy, mixed-up US elections

By Luis Fierro Carrión (*)

The United States presidential elections of 2016 have been the most polarized and strange in recent decades, and could end up with the nomination (and possible election) of a Republican candidate who is racist, xenophobic, misogynist and intolerant of religious and ethnic minorities.

Some political analysts believe that this electoral cycle represents a change of alignment of the two main parties, which will have a lasting impact on American politics.

Right-wing populism

The Republican Party, which had traditionally reflected conservative "free market" positions, such as fiscal discipline, free trade, restricting social benefits programs, promotion of immigration, and international interventionism, now reflects positions of populist nationalism, including protectionism, isolationism, growing xenophobia, and criticism of free trade agreements. This would reflect the rise of both the "Tea Party", the name given to populist right-wing groups which have had an unstoppable ascent in the Republican primaries; and what it is now called the "Trumpism", in honor of the front-runner, Donald Trump.

In sociological terms, this reflects the ascendance within the GOP of the white working class, especially in the South, which before the civil rights laws of the 1960s were reliable Democratic voters; they later they became the so-called "Reagan Democrats"; and now constitute the main electoral base of the Republican Party, along with the more rural states of the Rocky Mountains.

Most of the moderate Republicans of the Northeast and West Coast have become independents, and now usually vote for the Democratic Party, especially in Presidential elections.

Populist left

Meanwhile, the emergence of "democratic socialist" Bernie Sanders as a leftist candidate for the Democratic nomination, has also pushed the Democratic Party to the left on issues such as labor rights, minimum wage, rights of ethnic minorities, and LGBT rights. Gone is the "third way" and centrism imposed by the "Democratic Leadership Council" which was reflected in the presidency of Bill Clinton and the candidacies of Al Gore and John Kerry; it has re-established the center-left in the US, called "liberalism" (although is not related to classical liberalism). Some political analysts oppose Hillary Clintonism to Bill Clintonism, on topics as varied as the reform of criminal justice, the legalization of marijuana, gay rights, and the rights of women.

Undoubtedly, the rise of the populist right and left reflects a similar trend in Europe and Latin America, and has as its basis the extended economic recession and weak recovery. The recession has led to increased unemployment and underemployment; the labor market withdrawal of many frustrated workers; many students now graduate from college without good job prospects (and, in the case of the United States with high debts); a reduction of the median income; and a significant increase in inequality, leading to excesses that have been denounced by Sanders in the US, Pablo Iglesias in Spain and Tsipras in Greece.

Trumpism resembles the racist and xenophobic nationalism of parties in countries such as France (National Front), United Kingdom (UKIP), and parties that participate in government in Switzerland (SPP), Poland (Law & Justice), Denmark (DPP), Belgium (NFA), Finland (Finns Party), Macedonia (VRMO), among others. In 10 European countries nationalist far-right parties have gained more than 15% of the vote in the most recent elections (https://goo.gl/B3n69N).

Sanderism, meanwhile, is similar to the "democratic socialist" parties of the Mediterranean, including SYRIZA in Greece, PODEMOS in Spain, the Progressive Party in Cyprus, Latvia (LSP), Moldova (PC) and Portugal (Left Bloc ), which have obtained over 10% of the vote, and are part of government in Greece and Portugal.

In Latin America, extractive populism had dominated the countries of ALBA, but in more recent times it has lost elections in Argentina, Venezuela (parliamentary elections), Ecuador (sub-national governments), Bolivia (referendum for the re-election of Morales), Paraguay and Honduras.

Between Europe and Latin America, 11 "democratic socialist" parties have obtained more than 15% of the vote in the most recent elections (https://goo.gl/qfZ25P).

"Democratic socialism" is distinguished from social democracy, as social democracy promotes greater market regulation, an enhanced welfare state, and political democracy, all within the capitalist system; while "democratic socialism" includes proposals to change the economic system to socialism, social ownership of the means of production, an increasing role of the state in productive activities, and centralized planning.  Many former Communist and Marxist parties in Central and Eastern Europe now call themselves democratic socialists.

While in most countries social democracy and democratic socialism are in competition (e.g. in Spain, France, Greece, etc.); in the case of the UK, and now in the United States, representatives of democratic socialism have made progress within the established parties of the center-left. In the UK, Jeremy Corbyn, a hard left-wing MP, has taken the leadership of the Labour Party; and he has expressed support for Hugo Chavez, Hamas, and Hezbollah, among other rather extreme positions.

Sanderismo

In the US, Bernie Sanders has gone much further than anticipated. At the beginning of his candidacy, few people thought that he had any real possibilities, as a candidate who was 74 years old, socialist, Jewish, non-religious, independent (never registered as a Democrat), and that in the past had belonged to extreme left and Trotskyist parties, such as the Socialist Workers Party, the Socialist Party and Liberty Union party.

Some of these features had been rejected generically by majorities of voters: in a Gallup poll in June 2015 (http://goo.gl/I8jPZG), 50% said they would never vote for a socialist; 40% would not vote for an atheist; and 38% would not vote for a Muslim. Being Jewish, however, was rejected by only 7% of those polled, a similar percentage to being black (7%), Latino (8%) or female (8%).

However, Sanders reached high ratings in the "caucus" (committee meetings) of several states, especially those of the northern part of the US, with a large majority of non-Hispanic whites (https://goo.gl/vXpc2A). He won more than 60% of the vote in the caucuses in Alaska, Utah, Idaho, Washington, Hawaii, Kansas, Maine and Minnesota. It should be noted that these meetings are not overly democratic: in the state of Alaska, for example, Sanders won only 440 votes, which represented 81.6% of the total Democratic caucus-goers and 13 elected delegates. In Wyoming, he won with 156 votes, and in Maine with 2,231. Sanders has only received more than 60% of the vote in two primaries (internal elections): in his home state of Vermont (86%) and in the neighboring state of New Hampshire (61%).

Most of these states with high non-Hispanic white population are states in which traditionally the Republican Party wins (dubbed "red" states according to the US media, which reversed the traditional identification of conservatives with blue and progressive and leftists with red). The exceptions are Washington State and Vermont, which tend to vote for Democrats; and Hawaii, which tends to vote Democratic and where there is a large population of Asian-Pacific origin.

In the April 14th debate, which took place in Brooklyn, New York, Sanders "complained" that Hillary Clinton had won in the "conservative states of the deep South." Paul Krugman and other commentators noted that the reason why Hillary had won in those States was that they had a high proportion of African-American population, which constitutes one of the most important blocks of the electoral base of the Democratic Party nationwide. In other southern states where Hillary won, such as Florida, Texas, North Carolina and Virginia, in addition to blacks, there is a significant proportion of Latino and Asian-American population; and, with the exception of Texas, they are considered "pendulum" or "purple" states, in the sense that they fluctuate in their support between the two major parties, and winning them is essential to achieving a majority in the electoral college in the Presidential elections.

(Hillary) Clintonism

Hillary Clinton won more than 60% of the votes in the primaries of the six "Deep South" states : Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana and Arkansas. In addition, she achieved this margin in other southern states (Tennessee, Texas, Florida, Virginia), in the American Samoa (Pacific Islands) caucus, and approached this margin in another key purple state, Ohio. Her popular vote in some states was also impressive: only in the State of Florida, her margin of victory was 532,575 votes, while in Texas her lead approached 460 thousand votes.  Her margin of victory in New York State was also nearly 300 thousand votes.

These large margins in several large states have allowed Clinton to accumulate an advantage of 3.2 million votes by May 1st, as well as a difference in elected delegates of nearly 300 delegates. Added to this, she has an advantage of 481 "super-delegates" who are Congressmen, Governors and other leaders of the Democratic Party. Summing together elected delegates and super delegates, Hillary had reached 2,183 delegates by May 1st, i.e. 91.6 % of the total required to reach the nomination.

As delegates at the Democratic primaries are distributed proportionally, and Clinton is ahead in the polls in key states that have not yet voted, she is virtually certain to reach the nomination. While Sanders has not yet suspended his campaign, he has reduced his staff.  He has insisted he will continue to campaign until the Democratic Convention in Philadelphia, which will take place from 25 to 28 July - probably to try to influence the platform.

Platforms

Sanders platform, while seeking similar goals to Hillary Clinton (and the traditional positions of the Democratic Party), went a little further, towards a social-democratic welfare state in the European and Nordic tradition:

• Sanders proposed that public higher education be free for students (as it is already in some countries, such as Germany and Denmark). Currently, in the United States, the average annual pension cost at state universities for state residents is $ 9,139. This already includes a subsidy from state governments. Sanders's proposal was that a tax on financial transactions be imposed, although most analysts agreed that it would not have been sufficient to cover the cost; and his proposal also required that state Governors agree with the proposal and devote their own resources for this purpose (this is considered difficult, given that a majority of governors are Republicans). Hillary, meanwhile, proposed to increase subsidies for low-income students and the possibility that college graduates can refinance their debts at lower interest rates.

• Sanders proposed expanding a state-run "single payer" health system, similar to the system that currently exists for senior citizens (Medicare). In this case, Sanders acknowledged that it would imply significantly higher taxes on the middle class, but he argued that the amount of taxes would be lower by 50% compared to the premiums paid for private health insurance. Analysts indicated that there was no reason to think that it could achieve such a significant reduction in costs, since essentially the only private insurance costs that would be reduced would be the costs of marketing, advertising and accounting, which might reach 10 to 15 % of the total cost. Clinton proposes to increase the coverage of "Obamacare" to the additional 10% of the population that has not yet been covered by health insurance (the Obama health care reform has already managed to reduce the population not covered from 20 % to 10 %); and look for ways to reduce the cost of medical services and prescription medicines.

• Sanders proposed splitting up large banks that are considered "too big to fail", as they present systemic risks. Asked in an interview with "New York Daily News" exactly how he would do this, he stumbled to give the answer and could not really explain how the process would take place (essentially, he said, the banks would break themselves up). Hillary, however, felt that the focus should be on the systemic risk and not only on the size of bank assets, and they should implement additional reforms to strengthen the financial system (including non-bank financial institutions, which would not be covered by Sanders' proposal).

• The two Democratic candidates support a paid family leave of 12 weeks (e.g. for maternity or to take care of a sick family member; currently there is no such mandatory leave in the US).

• Both Democratic candidates acknowledge that climate change is an urgent crisis facing the US and the world, and will seek to promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, public transportation, and other mitigation and adaptation measures.  Hillary would put in place severe regulations on "fracking" or extraction of shale gas and oil, whereas Sanders said he would ban it outright.  It should be noted that natural gas has much lower greenhouse gas emissions than coal, and that currently many coal-fired power plants are being replaced by natural gas plants.

• The effect of the Sanders' proposals on the US federal budget has been estimated at a 40-50 % increase in spending, which could be addressed by a significant increase in taxes, especially for higher-income sectors.

The "reality show"

On the Republican side, the candidates have not submitted detailed electoral programs. Both Donald Trump (the multi-millionaire builder) as the Cuban-American Senator Rafael "Ted" Cruz have offered lower taxes, especially for the rich. Their proposals have been analyzed by economists, who have determined that they would not be viable, since they would increase the fiscal deficit and public debt to unsustainable levels.

The two have also indicated that they would deport 11 million undocumented immigrants, and Trump has insisted he will build a "wall" on the border between the US and Mexico, and that somehow he will force the Mexican government to pay for it (the Mexican government has already indicated it will do no such thing).

The two conservative candidates have proposed repealing "Obamacare", without going into details on what they would replace it with (Trump insists he will replace it with a "fantastic" plan that would cost less, and "not let people die in the street") . In practice, the Republicans would probably allow 20 million people who have achieved health insurance through "Obamacare" to lose it again.

Both candidates have said they would abrogate existing free trade agreements; and Trump has said he would recruit private entrepreneurs to negotiate new "fantastic deals" with China, Mexico, etc.; or, if that is not possible, impose tariffs of 35-45% on their imports (this, of course, would have a severe inflationary impact in the US, and would most likely lead to a trade war).

Republican debates, which began with 17 pre-candidates and ended up with three, never focused on the substantive programmatic issues, and always led to mutual insults, degrading to levels of questioning the size of the genitals of the other candidates, as well as how attractive their wives were.

More than an election campaign, this has been likened to a "reality show", such as "The Apprentice", a program in which Trump was the presenter. The multi-millionaire candidate (who claims to possess a fortune of about 9 billion dollars, but independent estimates put it at less than 2 billion) has violated virtually all the rules of electoral campaigns: insulting Mexicans, Muslims, Republican Senator John McCain (who was a prisoner of war in Vietnam, and was the Republican presidential candidate in 2008), all of his opponents, and even having the bad taste of derisively imitating a journalist with a disability. He has proposed banning the entry of all Muslim people to the United States, except, he said, some of his millionaire friends.  He recently indicated that he might allow South Korea and Japan to develop nuclear weapons, and that he might use nuclear weapons against ISIS.

Trump also has several potential problems in his business practices, including a lawsuit for fraud against "Trump University"; hiring undocumented Polish immigrants to build "Trump Tower" in NY; recently hiring short-term temporary foreigners for his resort "Mar-a-Lago" in Florida, rather than available US citizens; and there have even been articles that allege potential links with the mafia in his construction business.

Despite all these campaign errors, Trump is the favorite, with a lead of 410 delegates over Ted Cruz by May 1st, and a total of 956 delegates (77 % of the total needed for the nomination).



Virtually all the "establishment" powers of the Republican Party have tried to stop his candidacy, being convinced that it would lead to a catastrophic loss by the Republicans in the November general election; but he seems likely to reach most of the delegates before the Republican convention and be the nominee.

Assuming that the nominations of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump take place, all the experts believe that Clinton will win with a large majority of the "electoral college", which could even surpass the broad victory of Barack Obama in 2008. The Democrats even have the expectation that they could regain the majority in the Senate, as there are 24 Republican seats in play, and only 10 Democratic seats.  Paul Ryan, the Speaker of the House, has indicated that he could not guarantee that the Republicans maintain a majority of the House of Representatives if Trump is the candidate.

The control of the Executive branch and the Senate would enable the Democrats to nominate one or more members of the Supreme Court, where there is currently a vacancy caused by the death of conservative Antonin Scalia. This could tilt the balance of the Court to progressive positions for the first time in decades.

More generally, the demographic changes in the United States, with the growth of the Latino and Asian-American populations, tends to favor the Democratic Party, which has received the majority of the popular vote in all of the elections of the 21st century except in 2004 (in 2000, Al Gore won the majority of popular vote, but - thanks to the intervention of the Supreme Court granting the State of Florida to George W. Bush - Bush was elected).

May 10 Update:  Both Ted Cruz and John Kasich have suspended their campaigns, leaving Trump as the presumptive nominee.

(*) A Spanish version of this article will be published in the May 2016 edition of "Revista Gestión" of Ecuador.  The views are personal and do not reflect those of any entity.

Wednesday, February 3, 2016

AILAC achieved success in its climate finance priorities


By Luis Fierro Carrion (*)

The Independent Association of Latin America and the Caribbean (AILAC) achieved a complete success in its negotiating strategy on climate finance for the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

All of the priorities, red lines, and "bridging proposals" made by AILAC were considered in the Agreement and the Decision that adopted it; and the concepts developed by AILAC were the core aspects of the climate finance "package" in the Agreement.

Thus, AILAC achieved an incidence well above its weight in the world economy (measured by GDP, population or greenhouse gas emissions). This was achieved due to the positioning of AILAC as a group of ambitious developing countries willing to make commitments on mitigation and adaptation, and with a capacity for dialogue with developed countries (promoting the notion that an ambitious agreement on reducing emissions required adequate counterpart funding commitments by developed countries). The role of Peru as the COP20 Presidency was vital, as well as the leadership of Colombia (Colombian delegates were appointed as Co-Facilitator for Adaptation and as a member of the Group of Legal and Linguistic Experts).

AILAC, initially formed by Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Guatemala, Panama, and Peru, was consolidated throughout 2015 with the entry of Paraguay in June and Honduras in December. AILAC had a very active role within the Group of 77 and China (the group of 134 developing countries), and in the Cartagena Dialogue (a space for dialogue between developed and developing countries which share a progressive and ambitious position). Several of its member countries also joined the "High Ambition Coalition " that emerged in the course of COP21, which grew to more than a hundred countries, including the United States, Canada, the European Union, and Brazil.

Priorities defined by AILAC

Since 2014, AILAC defined the following priorities for the climate finance component of the Paris Agreement:

• A collective quantitative target for the provision and mobilization of climate finance, to be defined periodically (AILAC proposed every five years), and to take as a "floor" the existing commitment to mobilize $ 100 billion per year from 2020.

• Developed countries should periodically communicate "ex - ante" the funding that they will provide developing countries (AILAC proposed a biennial communication).

• A qualitative long-term goal that would lead to all investments and financial flows being gradually directed towards promoting a low-carbon and climate resilient development.

• Ratifying the existing obligation of developed countries to provide climate finance; initially, it was proposed to invite "other countries in position to do so" to also provide funding. Eventually, AILAC introduced as "bridging proposal " a sentence ratifying the obligation of developed countries, and another one inviting other countries to contribute (in a voluntary manner).

• to maintain all developing countries as recipients of climate finance; avoiding giving preference to any specific geographical regions.

• Promoting a more balanced finance for adaptation.

Increased transparency of information on the provision of financial support.

Strengthen the Operating Entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, which should serve the new agreement.

• Allowing the development of new international markets for the exchange of emission reduction certificates.

(These priorities were mentioned in a blog article in August 2015, http://goo.gl/uOi1Fz).

The concepts were introduced by "Submissions" presented at COP20 and during 2015; and also verbally during the ADP sessions in 2015.

It was decided that the main strategy to promote these priorities would be through the G77 & China, which was achieved by incorporating most of these positions in the "Submissions" presented by the G77 & China as a whole. In some cases, when there was no consensus within G77 & China (for example, with respect to qualitative long-term goal, and the invitation to other potential donors), dialogue continued with different groups of developing and developed countries.

An ongoing dialogue was maintained with the European Union, the Environmental Integrity Group (EIG) and NOAK (Nordic countries, including Norway); and also with the Cartagena Dialogue. In October a dinner was organized with various groups of developed and developing countries (including the United States, European Union, Switzerland, Mexico, AOSIS, LDCs) to promote the AILAC priorities in financing.

The concepts that faced greater resistance on behalf of developed countries were the quantitative collective goal to be reviewed periodically; as well as the ex - ante communication of the financing to be provided. Gradually, throughout 2015, these countries realized that these elements were essential to providing balance to the Paris Agreement as a whole.

How were AILAC priorities reflected in the Agreement and the Decision?

In the end, as was already mentioned, all of the AILAC priorities were reflected:

1. Quantified Collective Goal: Para. 54 of the Decision: "Also decides that, in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, developed countries intend to continue their existing collective mobilization goal through 2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation; prior to 2025 the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall set a new collective quantified goal from a floor of USD 100 billion per year, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries".

2. Ex-ante communication of financing to be provided: Art.9.5. "Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis".

3. Qualitative Long Term Goal: Art 2.1.c.. "Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate- resilient development."

4. Ratification of obligation of developed countries to provide financing / invitation to others to do so: Art 9.1 and 9.2 "9.1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. 9.2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily."

5. Keep reception of resources open to all developing countries: Article 9.1. already mentioned, as well as 9.3 and 9.4. There is no reference to specific geographic regions.

6. Greater balance in financing for adaptation: Art. 9.4. "The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change … considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation."

7. Greater transparency in financial support: Art. 9.7: "Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are encouraged to do so."

8. Strengthen the Operating Entities of the Financial Mechanism: Art 9.8 and 9.9. "9.8.The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement. 9.9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans."

9. Allow a market mechanism: this is reflected in Art. 6.4 and Paras. 38 and 39 of the Decision.

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) will become the main operating entity of the financial mechanism of the new agreement. During COP21, additional contributions to the GCF were announced by Norway, Canada, Vietnam, Estonia, City of Paris, and regions of Belgium; bringing the total committed to more than USD 10 billion. Similarly, additional donations were received for a total of USD 75 million for the Adaptation Fund from Germany, Sweden, Italy and the Belgian region of Wallonia (https://goo.gl/CKYgkz); 11 countries announced grants totaling USD 248 million to the Least Developed Countries Fund (LCDF); and several countries announced substantial increases in their climate financing in general (a summary of these announcements is available at: http://goo.gl/TZI01f).

AILAC Finance Team

One reason for the success of AILAC in the climate finance field was the strength of the team of delegates from AILAC that followed this issue. During COP21, the AILAC Finance Coordinators were Isabel Cavelier Adarve of Colombia and Jorge Gastelumendi of Peru. Other delegates that have played leading roles over the past two years include Maria Laura Rojas and Santiago Briceño of Colombia; Giovanna Valverde of Costa Rica; and Mirko Serkovic and Natalia Rojas-Jordan of Peru.

For me, it was a privilege to have supported the AILAC climate finance team, and to have contributed to the conceptual and strategic development that enabled these important achievements, which ultimately will make it easier for developing countries to pursue their mitigation and adaptation actions in the context of the Paris Agreement.


(*) Climate Finance Advisor for AILAC. The views expressed are personal and do not reflect the positions of AILAC or its member countries.

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

AILAC logró éxito en sus prioridades de financiamiento climático



AILAC logró éxito en sus prioridades de financiamiento climático

Por Luis Fierro Carrión (*)

            La Asociación Independiente de Latinoamérica y el Caribe (AILAC) logró un completo éxito en su estrategia de negociación sobre financiamiento climático en el Acuerdo de Paris de Cambio Climático.

            Todas las prioridades, líneas rojas, e incluso “propuestas puente” formuladas por AILAC fueron consideradas en el Acuerdo y la Decisión que lo adoptó; los conceptos elaborados por AILAC fueron los aspectos medulares del “paquete” de financiamiento climático del Acuerdo.

            De esta manera, AILAC logró una incidencia muy por encima de su peso en la economía mundial (medido por PIB, población o emisiones). Esto se logró dado el posicionamiento de AILAC como un grupo de países en desarrollo ambiciosos, dispuestos a asumir compromisos de mitigación y adaptación, y en capacidad de dialogar con los países desarrollados (promoviendo el concepto de que un Acuerdo ambicioso en reducción de emisiones requería como contraparte compromisos adecuados de financiamiento por parte de los países desarrollados).  También fue vital el papel de Perú como Presidencia de la COP20, así como el liderazgo de Colombia (habiéndose nombrado a delegadas colombianas como Co-Facilitadora de Adaptación e integrante del Grupo de Expertos Legales y Lingüísticos).

            AILAC, conformado inicialmente por Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Guatemala, Panamá, y Perú, se consolidó a lo largo del 2015 con el ingreso de Paraguay en Junio y de Honduras en Diciembre.  AILAC tuvo un papel muy activo al interior del Grupo de 77 y China (grupo de 134 países en desarrollo), así como dentro del Diálogo de Cartagena (espacio de diálogo de países desarrollados y en desarrollo que comparten una posición progresista y ambiciosa).  Varios de sus países miembros también se unieron a la “Coalición de Alta Ambición” que emergió en el transcurso de la COP21, y que llegó a reunir a más de un centenar de países, incluyendo a Estados Unidos, Canadá, la Unión Europea, y Brasil.

Prioridades definidas por AILAC

            Desde el 2014, AILAC fue definiendo las siguientes prioridades para el componente de financiamiento climático del Acuerdo de Paris:
·        
  • Una meta cuantitativa colectiva para la provisión y movilización de financiamiento climático, que fuese definida periódicamente (se propuso cada cinco años), y que tomase como “piso” el compromiso existente de movilización de $100 mil millones al año a partir del 2020.
  •  Que los países desarrollados comunicasen de manera “ex – ante” el financiamiento que iban a proveer a los países en desarrollo de manera periódica (AILAC propuso que fuese de manera bianual).
  • Una meta cualitativa de largo plazo que llevase a que todas las inversiones y flujos financieros gradualmente se dirijan hacia promover un desarrollo bajo en emisiones y resiliente al clima.
  • Que se ratifique la obligación de los países desarrollados de proveer financiamiento climático; inicialmente, se había propuesto que se invite a “otros países en la posición de hacerlo” a que también provean financiamiento. Eventualmente, se presentó como “propuesta puente” que una oración ratificase la obligación de los países desarrollados, y en otra se invitase a otros países a hacerlo.
  •  Que se mantenga como receptores de financiamiento climático a todos los países en desarrollo; evitando dar preferencia a ciertas regiones geográficas.
  • Buscar mayor equilibrio en el financiamiento para la adaptación.
  • Mayor transparencia en la información sobre provisión de apoyo financiero.
  •  Fortalecer a las entidades operativas del Mecanismo Financiero de la Convención, que debían servir al nuevo Acuerdo
  • Permitir el desarrollo de nuevos mercados internacionales de intercambio de certificados de reducción de emisiones.

(Estas prioridades fueron mencionadas en un artículo de blog en agosto 2015 http://goo.gl/uOi1Fz).

            Los conceptos fueron introducidos mediante “Submissions” (remisiones documentales) presentados a partir de la COP20; y también verbalmente durante las sesiones de ADP a lo largo del 2015.

            Se definió como estrategia principal el promover estas prioridades a través del G77 & China, lo cual se logró mediante la incorporación de la mayoría de estas posiciones en las “Submissions” presentadas por el G77 & China en su conjunto.  En algunos casos, cuando no se alcanzó el consenso dentro del G77 & China (por ejemplo, con respecto a la meta cualitativa de largo plazo, y la invitación a otros potenciales donantes), se continuó el diálogo con diversos grupos de países en desarrollo y desarrollados.
 
Se mantuvo un dialogo permanente con la Unión Europea, el Grupo de Integridad Ambiental (EIG) y NOAK (países Nórdicos, incluyendo a Noruega); y también con el Diálogo de Cartagena.  En Octubre se organizó una cena específicamente con diversos grupos de países desarrollados y en desarrollo (incluyendo Estados Unidos, Unión Europea, Suiza, México, AOSIS, LDCs) para promover las prioridades de AILAC en financiamiento.

            Los conceptos que encontraban mayor resistencia entre los países desarrollados fueron la meta colectiva cuantitativa a ser revisada periódicamente; y la comunicación ex – ante del financiamiento a ser provisto.  Gradualmente, a lo largo del 2015, estos países se dieron cuenta que estos elementos eran esenciales para dar balance al Acuerdo de Paris en su conjunto.

¿Cómo se reflejaron las prioridades de AILAC en el Acuerdo y la Decisión?

            A la postre, como ya se mencionó, todas las prioridades de AILAC se vieron reflejadas:
1.      
  1.       Meta Cuantitativa Colectiva: Para. 54 de la Decisión:  “Decide también que, de conformidad con el artículo 9, párrafo 3, del Acuerdo, los países desarrollados tienen la intención de mantener su actual objetivo colectivo cuantificado de movilización hasta 2025 en el contexto de una labor real de mitigación y de la transparencia en la implementación; antes de 2025, la Conferencia de las Partes en calidad de reunión de las Partes en el Acuerdo de París establecerá un nuevo objetivo colectivo cuantificado que será como mínimo de 100.000 millones de dólares anuales, teniendo en cuenta las necesidades y prioridades de los países en  desarrollo;
  2.      Comunicación ex – ante de financiamiento a ser provisto: Art.9.5. “Las Partes que son países desarrollados deberán comunicar bienalmente información indicativa, de carácter cuantitativo y cualitativo, en relación con lo dispuesto en los párrafos 1 y 3 del presente artículo, según corresponda, con inclusión de los niveles proyectados de recursos financieros públicos que se suministrarán a las Partes que son países   en   desarrollo,   cuando   se  conozcan.   Se   alienta   a   las   otras   Partes que proporcionen recursos a que comuniquen bienalmente esa información de manera voluntaria.”
  3.       Meta Cualitativa de Largo Plazo: Art. 2.1.c.  “Elevar las corrientes financieras a un nivel compatible con una trayectoria que conduzca a un desarrollo resiliente al clima y con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero”,
  4.       Ratificación de obligación de países desarrollados de proveer financiamiento/ invitación a otros a hacerlo: Art. 9.1 y 9.2 “9.1. Las Partes que son países desarrollados deberán  proporcionar  recursos financieros las Partes que son países en desarrollo para prestarles asistencia tanto en la mitigación como en la adaptación, y seguir cumpliendo así sus obligaciones en virtud de la Convención. 9.2. Se alienta a otras Partes a que presten o sigan prestando ese apoyo de  manera  voluntaria.”
  5.       Mantener abierta recepción de recursos a todos los países en desarrollo: Art. 9.1. ya mencionado, al igual que 9.3 y 9.4. No hay referencias a regiones geográficas.
  6.       Mayor balance en financiamiento para adaptación: Art. 9.4.  “En el suministro de un mayor nivel de recursos financieros se debería buscar un equilibrio entre la adaptación y la mitigación, teniendo en cuenta las estrategias que determinen los países y las prioridades y necesidades de las Partes que son países en desarrollo… tomando en consideración la necesidad de recursos públicos y  a  título de  donación  para la labor de adaptación”.
  7.       Mayor transparencia en apoyo financiero: Art. 9.7: “Las Partes que son países desarrollados deberán  proporcionar bienalmente información transparente y coherente sobre el apoyo para las Partes que son países en desarrollo que se haya prestado y movilizado mediante intervenciones públicas, de conformidad con las modalidades, los procedimientos y las directrices que apruebe la Conferencia de las Partes en calidad de reunión de las Partes en el Acuerdo de París en su primer período de sesiones, como se establece en el artículo 13, párrafo 13.  Se alienta a otras Partes a que hagan lo  mismo”.
  8.       Fortalecer las entidades operativas del Mecanismo Financiero: Art. 9.8 y 9.9: “9.8. El Mecanismo Financiero de la Convención, con las entidades encargadas de su funcionamiento, constituirá el mecanismo financiero del presente Acuerdo. 9.9. Las instituciones al servicio del presente Acuerdo, incluidas las entidades encargadas  del funcionamiento del Mecanismo Financiero de la Convención, procurarán ofrecer a los países en desarrollo, en particular a los países menos adelantados y los pequeños Estados insulares en desarrollo, un acceso eficiente a los recursos financieros mediante procedimientos de aprobación simplificados y un mayor apoyo para la preparación, en el contexto de sus planes y estrategias nacionales sobre el clima.”
  9.       Permitir un mecanismo de mercado: se ve reflejado en el Art. 6.4 y los Paras. 38 y 39 de la Decisión.

            El Fondo Verde para el Clima (GCF por su sigla en inglés) será la principal entidad operativa del Mecanismo Financiero del nuevo Acuerdo.  Durante la COP21, se anunciaron aportes adicionales al GCF de Noruega, Canadá, Vietnam, Estonia, de la ciudad de Paris, y de regiones de Bélgica; con lo cual el total comprometido ha superado los USD 10 mil millones.  Igualmente, se recibieron donaciones adicionales por un total de USD 75 millones al Fondo de Adaptación por parte de Alemania, Suecia, Italia y la región belga de Valonia (https://goo.gl/CKYgkz); 11 países anunciaron donaciones por un total de USD 248 millones al Fondo de Países Menos Adelantados (LCDF); y varios países anunciaron aumentos sustanciales de su financiamiento climático en general (ver un resumen en:  http://goo.gl/TZI01f).

Equipo de financiamiento de AILAC

            Una de las razones para el éxito alcanzado por AILAC en el ámbito de financiamiento fue la fortaleza del equipo de delegados de AILAC que seguían el tema.  Durante la COP21 los Coordinadores fueron Isabel Cavelier Adarve de Colombia y Jorge Gastelumendi de Perú.  Otros delegados destacados a lo largo de los dos últimos años incluyen a María Laura Rojas y Santiago Briceño de Colombia; Giovanna Valverde de Costa Rica; y Mirko Serkovic y Natalia Rojas-Jordán de Perú.

            Para mí fue un privilegio haber apoyado al equipo de Finanzas de AILAC, y haber contribuido al desarrollo conceptual y estratégico que permitió alcanzar estos importantes logros, que, en definitiva, facilitarán que los países en desarrollo puedan llevar adelante sus acciones de mitigación y adaptación en el contexto del Acuerdo de Paris.


(*)  Asesor en Financiamiento Climático de AILAC.  Las opiniones vertidas son personales y no reflejan las posiciones de AILAC ni sus países miembros.